Saturday, May 23, 2020

Lidls Marketing Strategy Example For Free - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2437 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Marketing Essay Type Case study Did you like this example? Introduction Lidls history begins in the 1930s, when their first store was created in Germany acting as a grocery wholesaler. Since then, Lidl has now become one of the largest grocery retailers in Europe, with over 600 stores operating in the UK, and thousands based across Europe (Butler, 2014). Although the amount of stores that Lidl have in operation is staggering, it is made even more amazing by the fact they only expanded out of Germany 20 years ago (Lidl, 2015). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Lidls Marketing Strategy Example For Free" essay for you Create order This rapid expansion has made them one of the most dominant and feared competitors in the UK grocery market, with major grocery retailers constantly trying to minimise Lidls portion of market share. Although Lidls market share in the UK is still relatively small, with them acquiring 3.5% at the beginning of 2015, they are one of the fastest growing grocery retailers. Whilst many supermarkets are losing their market share, Lidls was increased by a stagger 15.1% from 3.1% to 3.5% (FT, 2015). Figure 1 highlights the variation in market share, and how much market share each supermarket currently holds. As previously mentioned, although Lidl have a relatively low market share, they are currently one of the fastest growing retailers in the market. An analysis of Lidls current marketing strategy will be conducted, with particular emphasis on the 7 Ps of marketing. Furthermore, Porters Generic Strategies will be analysed in order to aid in the understanding of Lidls current strateg ies. This will then be concluded with a SWOT analysis, with recommendations being drawn up via the utilisation of a TOWS matrix. Marketing Strategy Analysis The five core concepts of marketing are; consumer needs/wants/demands, products and services, value/satisfaction/quality, exchanges/transactions/relationships and markets (Kotler, et al., 2008). One of the most efficient ways to analyse these factors is to conduct a marketing strategy analysis, which looks to explore the strategies an organisation utilises in order to grow and expand their market share. 7 Ps Analysis In order to successfully analyse Lidl marketing strategy, a 7 Ps analysis can be conducted, which seeks to analyse some very basic, but significant issues. Originally, the 7 Ps was only comprised of 4 Ps which aimed to address certain issues that would allow a firm to have a more developed understanding of their internal operations. The 4Ps are comprised of; product, price, place and promotion (CIM, 2009). However, due to the limited applicability of the 4 Ps, three more were added to form the 7Ps, which aims to encompass some service qualities the 4 Ps do not cover (Booms Bitner, 1981; Lusch, et al., 2007). Product (Quality, brand name, service line, warranty, capabilities, facilitating goods, tangible clues, price, personnel, physical environment and process of service delivery): Very solid brand name from being one of the cheapest supermarket retailers in the industry. Their main competition as a value supermarket is Aldi (Bosshart, 2006). The products sold in Lidl are often very similar to the goods sold in other supermarkets, such as Tesco or Asda. However, the main distinction would be the different brand names of the products in Lidl stores. Consumers could have a negative perception of the quality of Lidls products as they are sold for such a cheap price (Siro, et al., 2008). Price (Level, discounts and allowances, payment terms, customers own perceived value, quality/price interaction and differentiation): One of the key competitive advantages for Lidl is their clever pricing strategies. Lidl entered the market on the basis of being one of the most value-driven supermarkets in the industry (Dolgui Proth, 2010). All payments are made up before leaving the store at the check outs. As they offer goods at an incredibly cheap price, consumers may believe that the goods they sell are poor quality, however this is generally not the case (Siro, et al., 2008). Place (Location, accessibility, distribution channels and distribution coverage): Lidl have a plethora of stores across the UK and Europe. However, depending on the country, they operate in different segments of the supermarket industry, ranging from value to high-end goods (Butler, 2014). They have a variety of distribution hubs across the UK and Europe to ensure that stores are maintaining a constant level of stock (Brown, 2015). As their business model is to sell as many goods as possible in the shortest amount of time, ensuring stock levels are maintained is incredibly important. This means that it is imperative to have stores in reasonably close proximity to national distribution centres. Promotion (Advertisements, personal selling, sales promotion, publicity, personnel, physical environment, facilitating goods, tangible clues and process of service delivery): Lidl do not current have any loyalty schemes present in the UK, as they believe their pricing model is enough to incentivise consumers. Lidl often have in store promotions, but they do not discount their goods as highly as other retailers due to the low prices that already exist. People (Personnel training, discretion, commitment, incentives, appearance, interpersonal behaviour, attitudes and customer behaviour/degree of involvement): Employees are generally paid a very attractive salary, but have to work incredibly hard whilst on the job. The amount of items scanned is often used as a performance measurement indicator (Ruddick, 2015). High training standards to ensure employees can scan items fast enough and meet all customer needs. Consumers may feel that staff do not pay them enough attention as they are very rushed doing their job responsibilities. Process (Policies, procedures, mechanisation, employee discretion, customer involvement, customer direction and flow of activities): Primary process of Lidl is to purchase and sell as many goods as possible on a low-cost basis. Consumers are not very involved in any of the processes or procedures of Lidl, and would have little power over their business operations. Physical (Environment, furnishings, colour, layout, noise level, facilitating goods and tangible clues): The majority of Lidl stores are laid out in a very linear and traditional manner. This is to aid consumers in finding their goods as soon as possible and having easy access to purchase and leave (Lidl, 2015). Lidl will often exhibit their brand colours, yellow and blue, throughout their stores or surrounding areas. This will help consumers know there is a Lidl nearby. Porters Generic Strategies Porter outlines four generic strategies; differentiation, cost leadership, differentiation focus and cost focus (Porter, 1980). From utilising the information gathered from the 7 Ps analysis, it becomes quickly apparent as to what strategy Lidl are currently pursuing. Lidl have a reliant focus on selling quality products at the cheapest cost possible. This would suggest that they are utilising a cost leadership strategy, and are implemented it with incredible effectiveness (Morschett, et al., 2006). However, in order to maintain their current rate of growth and expansion, Lidl may have to diversify from their current strategies in order to stay competitive and innovative within the UK grocery market. SWOT Analysis Based on the 7 Ps analysis, a SWOT analysis can be conducted in regards to Lidl. The SWOT analysis will help an organisation measure and understand the internal strengths and weaknesses, and the external opportunities and threats facing the firm. Being able to identify these elements will help an organisation to formulate and develop strategies which may build on the strengths, negate the weaknesses, exploit the opportunities or counter the threats (Dyson, 2004). Strengths (Simon, et al., 2010; Kumar Steenkamp, 2007): Strong business structure allows them to sell their products at an incredibly cheap price. Wide range of private labels gives them exclusivity and security. Has a huge amount of stores across the whole of the UK and Europe giving Lidl great exposure. Online presence that showcases the products they have and any deals they may be running. Weaknesses (FT, 2015; Siro, et al., 2008): Does not quite have the market share of the other big supermarkets in the UK, such as Tesco or Asda. Has not been able to spread their operations outside of Europe very successfully. As their products are so cheap consumers can often think that the quality is not good enough. Opportunities (Felsted, 2014): Potential to expand in the UK and acquire a higher share of the UK grocery market. Successfully expanding abroad can provide more funds to invest in the UK. Expand their website to actually accept orders and sell products. Threats (Poulter, 2014): If Lidl were to engage with a price war with other major grocery retailers then they could force competitors prices down. International expansion of other global brands would cause more competition. Aldi surpassing their market share and becoming the dominant discount grocery retailer. Recommendations Together with the SWOT analysis, a TOWS matrix can be utilised in order to develop strategies and recommendations for Lidl to acquire a greater market share of the UK grocery industry (Weihrich, 1982). Strengths Strong business structure allows them to sell their products at an incredibly cheap price. Wide range of private labels gives them exclusivity and security. Has a huge amount of stores across the whole of the UK and Europe giving Lidl great exposure. Online presence that showcases the products they have and any deals they may be running. Weaknesses Does not quite have the market share of the other big supermarkets in the UK, such as Tesco or Asda. Has not been able to spread their operations outside of Europe very successfully. As their products are so cheap consumers can often think that the quality is not good enough. Opportunities Potential to expand in the UK and acquire a higher share of the UK grocery market. Successfully expanding abroad can provide more funds to invest in the UK. Expand their website to actually accept orders and sell products. SO: Maxi-Maxi Funnel revenue back into the UK market by creating more stores across the UK. Introduction of new product ranges that cater to an upper-class demographic. Use strong online presence and staff training to expand their website with click collect or delivery services. WO: Mini-Maxi Cooperate with firms operating in the US or Asia to expand operations. Increased revenue could then be funnelled into UK development. Provide more information on their website about product details in order to enforce quality. Threats If Lidl were to engage with a price war with other major grocery retailers then they could force competitors prices down. International expansion of other global brands would cause more competition. Aldi surpassing their market share and becoming the dominant discount grocery retailer. ST: Maxi-Mini Lidls own range of private brands can be used to deter price wars and comparisons. Utilise the significant amount of exposure across the UK and Europe to construct barriers of entry for other low-cost grocery retailers. WT: Mini-Mini Avoid engaging in price wars and competitive with major grocery retailers on a direct basis. Utilise extensive network in of operations in other European countries to bring new products to the UK. Based on the TOWS matrix, and the analysis of Lidls current market strategies, three recommendations can be laid that would help Lidl acquire a greater share of the UK grocery market. The three recommendations are; Extend the usability of their website to accept click collect orders or even delivery. This would expand their presence in the UK market. Develop and implement upper-class branded products in order to target a new demographic and compete with the major supermarket retailers on a more even environment. Construct firm barriers of entry to deter other organisations from entering the UK grocery market and potentially encroaching on Lidls market share. In order to stay competitive in the UK grocery industry, and continue to build upon their UK market share, Lidl should utilise the aforementioned strategies. Furthermore, this could result in them following a combination of generic strategies, as the introducing of upper-class brands, in combination with their current business structure, would suggest a differentiation strategy is in place. However, if Lidl pursue the adoption of other strategies, they must ensure that their current consumer base is not alienated, or they could end up losing market share. Furthermore, Lidl should continue to open more stores in the UK in order to expand their presence and accessibility, which will allow their operations to have similar exposure to the other major supermarket retailers. Bibliography Booms, B. H. Bitner, M. J., 1981. Marketing strategies and organization structures for service firms. In: Marketing of Services. Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 47-51. Bosshart, D., 2006. Cheap?: The Real Cost of Living in a Low Price, Low Wage World. London: Kogan Page Limited. Brown, G., 2015. Giant Lidl distribution hub to create 500 West Midlands jobs. [Online] Available at: Butler, S., 2014. [Online] Available at: CIM, 2009. Marketing and the 7Ps, s.l.: Chartered Institute of Marketing. Dolgui, A. Proth, J. M., 2010. Pricing strategies and models. Annual Reviews in Control, 34(1), pp. 101-110. Dyson, R. G., 2004. Strategic development and SWOT analysis at the University o f Warwick. European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 152, pp. 631-640. Felsted, A., 2014. Lidl expansion to crank up pressure on big stores. [Online] Available at: FT, 2015. Half of UK shoppers visited Lidl, Aldi over Xmas. [Online] Available at: Kotler, P., Armstrong, G. Saunders, J., 2008. Principles of Marketing. 5th ed. s.l.:Prentice Hall. Kumar, N. Steenkamp, J. B. E. M., 2007. Private Label Strategy: How to Meet the Store Brand Challenge. Cambridge: Harvard Business Press. Lidl, 2015. Customer orientated expansion. [Online] Available at: Lidl, 2015. [Online] Available at: Lusch, R. F., Vargo, S. L. OBrien, M., 2007. Competing through service: Insights fr om service-dominant logic. Journal of Retailing, 83(1), pp. 5-18. Morschett, D., Swoboda, B. Schramm-Klein, H., 2006. Porter outlines four generic strategies; differentiation, cost leadership, differentiation focus and cost focus (Porter, 1980).. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 13(4), pp. 275-287. Porter, M. E., 1980. Competitive Strategy. s.l.:Free Press. Poulter, S., 2014. Aldi and Lidl to force big four supermarkets into price war to stop stampede of customers to discount chains. [Online] Available at: Ruddick, G., 2015. Supermarkets could increase prices to pay for living wage. [Online] Available at: Simon, H., Gathen, A. V. D. Daus, P. W., 2010. Retail Pricing Higher Profi ts Through Improved Pricing Processes. In: Retailing in the 21st Century. Berlin: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 319-336. Siro, I., Kapolna, E., Kapolna, B. Lugasi, A., 2008. Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptanceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ A review. Appetite, 51(3), pp. 456-467. Weihrich, H., 1982. The TOWS Matrix A Tool for Situational Analysis, San Francisco: Long Range Planning .

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

General Paper Free Essays

string(25) " they were 60 years ago\." MARRIAGE. â€Å"Marriage is the union of two different surnames, in friendship and in love, in order to continue the posterity of the former sages, and to furnish those who shall preside at the sacrifices to heaven and earth, at those in the ancestral temple, and at those at the altars to the spirits of the land and grain. † —Confucius, As this culture becomes more individual focused, bonds with others for survival becomes less important. We will write a custom essay sample on General Paper or any similar topic only for you Order Now We now pay people to do the things we used to accomplish in a partnership. Restaurants and fast food chains, once relegated to occasional family outings, are a main source of nourishment. There are agencies that will deliver â€Å"home-cooked meals† to you or have them ready for pick-up. Cleaning staff, once limited to the rich or to businesses, are being used by the middle-class. Both parents are working, focusing on their careers, their paths toward self individuation, and more tedious tasks like yard work are being hired out. The point, partnerships are less necessary than they were 60 years ago. You read "General Paper" in category "Essay examples" That is the social reason that the institution of marriage may be outdated. But the social influence does not stand alone. These changes impact individuals and individuals make up a marriage. So what are some of the individual characteristics that may contribute to marriage being an outdated concept? First, as discussed above, it is the desire for individuation by those in a marriage. More and more often people want to have meaning in their life, beyond raising a family. We are culture whose individuals want to be different. Americans want to stand out. They want to feel they accomplished something for themselves. As such, simply supporting a partner to achieve feels inadequate to many. They also want to achieve, and to be supported in their endeavors. This alone can contribute to strife in a marriage. Whose needs come first? How long do I put my goals on the back burner to help you attain yours? When can I pursue my happiness? â€Å"Is marriage as an institution outdated? † Discuss According to the most recent statistics, the divorce rate, often quoted (even by this author in classes) as 50% of marriages, is actually closer to the low 40 percentile. (Divorce Rate: It’s Not as High as You Think, By Dan Hurley, The New York Times, and April 19, 2005). But that does not negate the fact that the United States has the highest divorce rate in the world per capital. The fact that so many American marriages end in divorce leads to the question is marriage an outdated institution? I think the answer is dependent on some of your personal variables. First, let us look at the facts: over 40% of marriages end in divorce. This does not simply infer that the intact marriages are happy. This author attended a lecture by a respected psychiatrist, rabbi, and author who suggested that another half of the in-tact marriages were unhappy. Per capita, the United States has the highest divorce rate in the world. The average duration of a marriage in the U. S is about 7 to 8 years. And although marriage is an institution which makes childrearing most efficacious, marriages in which there are children end in divorce with a higher frequency than those marriages without children. Yet marriage remains an institution that many would not think of doing away with or even restructuring. Likely even the question of marriage being an outdated institution raises eyebrows. A controversial issue in this country currently is whether gays should have the right to marry, again showing the attachment to this social institution. Many young people wouldn’t dream of not getting married. In fact, many women have been dreaming about their impending nuptials since they were young children. This is not only true for women, as many men assume marriage and children are a foregone conclusion in their lives. So what is this author’s argument that the idea of marriage might be outdated? Well, beyond the statistics above, I also believe that as the Dali Lama said, â€Å"Our purpose in life is to be happy. From the very core of our being, we simply desire contentment. † This is becoming more and more true today, as more people seek happiness. Marriage is a source of lasting happiness for some, but for others it is only a temporary high. The first argument that marriage might be outdated is the divorce rate. Marriage has been around as an institution since, well, according to anything found in this author’s research, ancient time. It was reported as necessary for childrearing, property disbursement, and bloodline. In these times it was more necessary to have a partnership to survive. Even more than partnerships, tribes were necessary for survival. As times changed, neighborhoods became like tribes and small communities worked together to enhance the lives of all. But Western civilization has continued to move toward a more individualistic culture. Today people are less likely to even socialize with their neighbors, let alone rely on them. It is true some areas are bound by their neighborhood, and the community works together to enhance the life of its members. But this is becoming less and less true. As an example, how many â€Å"daycare centers† for children were there 50 years ago? As this culture becomes more individual focused, bonds with others for survival becomes less important. We now pay people to do the things we used to accomplish in a partnership. Restaurants and fast food chains, once relegated to occasional family outings, are a main source of nourishment. There are agencies that will deliver â€Å"home-cooked meals† to you or have them ready for pick-up. Cleaning staff, once limited to the rich or to businesses, are being used by the middle-class. Both parents are working, focusing on their careers, their paths toward self individuation, and more tedious tasks like yard work are being hired out. The point, partnerships are less necessary than they were 60 years ago. That is the social reason that the institution of marriage may be outdated. But the social influence does not stand alone. These changes impact individuals and individuals make up a marriage. So what are some of the individual characteristics that may contribute to marriage being an outdated concept? First, as discussed above, it is the desire for individuation by those in a marriage. More and more often people want to have meaning in their life, beyond raising a family. We are culture whose individuals want to be different. Americans want to stand out. They want to feel they accomplished something for themselves. As such, simply supporting a partner to achieve feels inadequate to many. They also want to achieve, and to be supported in their endeavors. This alone can contribute to strife in a marriage. Whose needs come first? How long do I put my goals on the back burner to help you attain yours? When can I pursue my happiness? Another aspect of this is the drive toward excitement and experience. For some people, experience is more important than possessions. Some people just enjoy experience, for its own sake. They may be thrill seekers, or may just place a high value on novel experiences. These people just enjoy doing new things and meeting new people. At one point in time these characters might have been explorers, adventurers, or other types of risk takers. It seems though, that this is becoming much more common as a character trait these days. And folks with this character trait are likely to find the routine of marriage stifling. There are other reasons that marriages may fail that are related to society. For one, despite many marriages failing or being unhappy, we live in a culture that romanticizes marriage. People are constantly told they will find their soul mate, that if this relationship doesn’t work out; another will come along who might be â€Å"the one. In reality, how often are you able to accurately predict who your â€Å"one† is? Most people getting married believe they found the one. And when that doesn’t work and they remarry, they often believe this time they found the one. And this isn’t limited only to those who marry. How many people did you get romantically involved with who at so me point you thought were probably â€Å"the one†? Perhaps this concept, which shows no signs of dying despite the evidence against it, is at worst mere wishful thinking, or at best, a long-shot. Along with this idea of marriage being romanticized is the desire to simply have a wedding. First, a wedding is a beautiful thing. The pageantry, the pomp, and the beauty of it all results in it being majestic. Everyone should have one. It just doesn’t seem they should have to stay together forever as a result. In a recent discussion with a colleague who was discussing marriage, she reported she wanted to get married. It wasn’t that she necessarily wanted to marry the guy she was with, but that she wanted to get married to someone. She discussed the beauty of a wedding, and how it would be a shame to miss out on that. Everyone wants to be Cinderella or Prince Charming for a night. This is not uncommon thinking. But does the expectation have to be that they will stay together for a lifetime? (There was an article two years ago about a politician in a European country advocating a law that marriages expire after seven years, with the opportunity to renew. Of course she was mocked and ridiculed). Another point of discussion for why marriages may fail focuses on the fact that many people get married before having been on their own. Recently one of my students, when discussing her relationship, actually said she didn’t want to be alone for the rest of her life. She couldn’t have been more than 27, although early 20’s is more likely. For some reason this is a predominant fear in our culture (this could evolve into an existential discussion, but that is better placed in another article). There seems to be a myth that if you don’t find someone, and latch onto them, you will be lonely and miserable, possibly for the rest of your life. Many people seem to settle so they don’t have to face this fear. Ultimately, this fear becomes less predominant, and the person may leave the marriage. But the real culprit was the fear leading to settling. Too often, marriage is an attempt to posses another. When humans love someone, they are afraid to let them go. People are afraid of loss. And what better way to secure someone than marriage? Marriage provides a {false} sense of security. It definitely makes ending the relationship more difficult. But beyond just the fear of being alone is the fact that if you haven’t been on your own you are used to a cycle of dependency. First people are dependent on their caregivers. And if they go from this state to one of marriage, they have never really been independent. There has always been someone else helping out. Outside of simply being dependent, there is a level of maturation that comes from living on your own and not being in a romantic relationship. One learns to nurture oneself, to care for oneself, to be independent in the truest sense of the word. Unfortunately, many who enter marriage have never really experienced this. This discussion of personal growth leads me to another point regarding how the changing times have altered individual’s character. These days more people are interested in their own personal growth. As people grow and change the risk of growing apart increases. When most people in their forties think of what they were like in their twenties, they can usually see the tremendous changes that have occurred. This is even truer when personal growth is a goal. And with one or even both partners growing and changing, the potential for growth in opposing directions is a possibility. And even if you don’t grow apart, there is the possibility of a loss of attraction for your partner, and growing attraction for others you meet on your path. Attraction is one of my favorite areas of psychology. The reason one individual is attracted to another is rich with possibility. For some, there is a reminiscence of something deeply enjoyed in the past. A client recently discussed how the attraction to each of her recent relationships related to two important men in her life. This is excellent evidence of this phenomenon. For some people they believe this person they are with is the best they will ever be able to get. Sometimes this comes from feelings of low self esteem, but this is not always the case. Often there is a bargaining process which goes on inside of us when considering a romantic partner. We have this much beauty, smarts, financial potential, humor, etc, and we want equal value. Too much value and we might be insecure. Too little, and well we are getting the short end of the stick. But beyond all of this is the most common reason one individual is attracted to another: early childhood memory. This article is not the appropriate place for this discussion, so I refer the reader to â€Å"A General Theory of Love† by Lewis, Amini, and Lannon. In short the above book systematically provides a theory that purports that all experiences, but most importantly early childhood experiences, affect the choices we make in close relations. If we had dysfunction in our home, we continue this pattern in other relations. This leads to another reason marriages may not remain intact as they used to, and hence may be an outdated concept. Bluntly, pathology is less accepted now. In the past, abuse, issues of control, alcoholism, addiction, and mental illness were hidden in a closet. These days’ people are more psychologically informed. They are more aware that being mistreated is not acceptable, that it is not a reflection on them. They are less likely to tolerate behavior which contributes to their unhappiness. And furthermore, they are more likely than their predecessors to read self-help books, engage in therapy and resolve the issues that result in staying somewhere they are unhappy. They are even more likely to resolve the issues that lead to the attraction to begin with, which would result in the attraction dissipating. So is marriage an outdated concept? It is possible after reading this article you may think this author believes so. And for many people, I do believe marriage is an outdated concept. And I am not alone, although likely in the minority (judging from the comments posted on the article â€Å"On Marriage: Let’s Call the Whole Thing Off† posted on MSN June 228, 2009). But I do marriage counseling, and believe marriage is right for many other people. The goal is to find if you are right for marriage. And ultimately whether marriage is an outdated concept or not is a personal decision. Some of the things you might look at before making the decision are your motives for marriage. Are you buying into a preconceived notion of what is supposed to be, without evaluating your values? Have you been planning your wedding since you were young and do you just refuse to give up on the dream, regardless of how your personality might affect long term commitment? Are you devoutly religious, and believe that pleasing God comes before personal happiness? If you believe marriage is for you, and you have evaluated your motives, then far be it for any article to sway you. Just realize marriage is work, and it will be important to forgo your happiness at times to maintain the marriage. And keep your hope. Even if marriage is an outdated concept, everyone has the right to make the choices they make. Good luck on your path. How to cite General Paper, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Immunity and Disease Resistant System

Question: Explain about the Immunity and Disease for Resistant System? Answer: Eosinophilsare specialized resistant cell of the resistant system. This provocative white blood cell usually has a center with two lobes and cytoplasm filled with granules having enzymes and proteins with many, recognized and unrecognized, purposes (Adkinson et al., 2014). The white blood cells shown are stained with hematoxylin and eosin This is also known as HE. The HE staining method is a ordinary way used in histology. The hemotoxylin helps in staining the nuclei of cells, which is the control center of the cell where the DNA is located. The pink staining in the eosin is the rationale why the cells are named as eosinophils meaning eosin loving( Alomari McNiff, 2014). The eosinophils are generated in the bone marrow where they stay about eight days in the procedure of formation prior to there release in the blood veins. They move throughout the vessel for eight hours to twelve hours until they finally reach their target in the tissues. They remain in the tissues for about 1 to 2 weeks. Interleukin seems to be the major growth issue for this type of cell (Berek,2015). There are different functions of eosinophils, some of which may be very similar to other white blood cells. They are concerned in many irritable process, especially allergic diseases. Additionally, eosinophils may have a physiological function in the formation of organ. For example, postgestational mammary gland development. The primary functions of eosinophils are: Movement to irritated areas Catching materials Killing of cells Antiparasitic and Bacterial action Participating in allergic respones Modulating Inflammatory Reactions. Clinicians often sum up the role of eosinophils in health and disease as a invasive agreement estimation first known in medical and graduate school. Eosinophils are uncommon white blood cells whose behavior are mainly significant and are only pertinent in parasitic infections and asthma. This review disputes the prosperity of studies obtainable examining the position of eosinophils in disease and health both. Demonstrations are made that the performance of these granulocytes are extremely unrestrained and compound than earlier respected. In return, this thought has guided to the understanding that eosinophils have major contributing functions in a ample series of illness. Additionally, reported studies associate eosinophils mediated activities in or else fit people. Eosinophils have balance of mediators essential to control particularly both adaptive and native resistant reactions. Many outstanding review articles explain in great the features of immune intermediaries released by eosinophils and will not be evaluated in deep here. In short, eosinophils articulate cytokines and acute proinflammatory cytokines, resistant inhibitory cytokines and articulate receptors for many of these cytokines. In accumulation, eosinophils articulate molecules that straightforwardly change T cell behavior through Notch pathways as well as co stimulatory molecules and MHC class 2 that permit eosinophils to perform as antigen presenting cells. Innate immune fucntions of eosinophils looking of outline acknowledgment receptors, such as Tolllike receptors 1-5, 7, and 9, nucleotide oligomerization domains 1 and 2, Dectin-1 (Berek,2015). Receptor for higher glycation end products, which distinguish pathogen-associated molecular behaviour or dangerassociated patterns of molecules.10,11 Eosinophil granule proteins are also able of compulsory prototype gratitude receptors in an autocrine and paracrine way to persuade cellular establishment. Additonally, eosinophils articulate a congregation of resistant adapting chemokines and adhesion molecules 12 harmonize receptors 13 and lipids and their receptors.14 In some instances listed below, these formerly less liked immune regulatory capabilities of eosinophils are focused as of possible important in both physical condition and sickness (Fukuda, 2012). Remodeling and revamping are generally connected with enduring functional and structural modification from the unique cellular and physiologic capability of a tissue, organ or cell. Extracellular matrix collapse improvement and cellular transdifferentiation (eg, transition of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts or Clara cells to goblet cells in the respiratory epithelium), apoptosis/necrosis, cell proliferation, and altered cellular activation. These proceedings are started by the discharge of development reasons, cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, lipid mediators, and reactive oxygen species from the tissue or infiltrating inflammatory cells. Eosinophils have been used to articulate and discharge both mediators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, such as TGF-, basic fibroblast growth reasons , plateletderived growth factor, matrix metalloproteases, vascular endothelial growth factors4,5,11 as well as other restore/adaptive reasons, such as nerve increase factors, neuropeptides,15 and cytok ines such as IL-1 and IL-6.6. Additionally, granule proteins, eicosanoids, leukotrienes, reactive oxygen species, and cell-cell signaling molecules have been conjectured to donate to altering proceedings in both health (eg, bone metabolism16) and diverse sickness states. Demonstration of these behaviors in disorders explains increased vascular leakage, fibrosis, epithelial desquamation, angiogenesis, epithelial metaplasia, and smooth muscle hypertrophy.17-19. As such; information in the writing have linked eosinophils with the remodeling proceedings and sphysical changes happening in famous eosinophilassociated circumstances as well as more incomprehensible diseases. At one end, such as in the disorder erythema toxicum eosinophils is a good modulator element or a naive spectator. Differently, based on circumstances like Loefflers disease and idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, eosinophils are connected with enduring medical modification. eosinophils are part of airways of patients with asthma and in animals, they are part of allergic airway inflammation. Ideally, it is considered to be the conclusive stage that controls the T cell response. Allergic asthma is an ailment in the respiratory passage that has been given universal importance amongst the urbanized crowd. The main features of allergic asthma are failure of inhalation, breathlessness, airway restriction and creation of mucus in the lung in response to ecological changes. In case of chronic asthmas, final term remodeling of the lung is also examined. This outcomes in the condensation of the base membranes in the lung and airpassages, even muscle propagation, higj fibrosis and slow lung capability. While the motive for getting the disease of asthma is indistinct, it has been credited due to city dwelling and population. In the United States alone, in excess of eleven percent of the inhabitants is troubled with this illness, distressing the alternative of the country. Penetration of eosinophils to the lung is one of the main individuality of allergic asthma in animal and human cells. It was recently found that the purpose of these cells in asthma has been an obscu rity. It was originally considered that eosinophils were distributed to the lung by way of T cells as end stage effector cells. In the blood increased levels of IL- 5 are found and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with eosinophilic esophaitis and allergic asthma. Atopic asthamatics also dock large statistics of eosinophil progenitors expressing IL-5 receptor alpha in the bone marrow. Models of allergic airway inflammation also included with prominent numbers of eosinophil progenitors in blood and bone marrow, signifying that a collection of these progenitors are made obtainable for rapid growth and trafficking upon IL-5 stimulation. During allergic airway irritation, eosinophils are employed to the lung by chemokines such as CCL-24 and CCL-11.These are produced by allergic airway inflammation, eosinophils are born out of air passages epithelial cells because of the pressure of cytokines such as IL- 13. In the lung, eosinophils can possibly execute a number of responsibilitie s, including antigen presentation and secretion of cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases granule mediators as well as leukotrienes. Like other cells such as macrophages, neutrophills, basophills and mast cells are also capable to radiate overlying products and have overlying duties, the main involvement by eosinophils is uncertain. To get a clear thinking of the position of these cells in airway inflammation, murine models have been developed. Interestingly enough, a more current work in these models proposed that eosinophils play a vital role in early growth stages of allergic to asthma rather than just as late stage effector cells (Adkinson et al., 2014). Two different mouse replicas particularly missing eosinophils have now been recorded. Lee and colleagues have formed a transgenic mouse on the C57BL/6 surroundings expressing Diphtheria toxin A utilizing the eosinophils peroxidase supporter for eosinophils precise appearance, resulting in discriminating ablation of this cell ancestry. Using the model of ovalbumin immunization and airway exposure, it has been analysed that eosinophils are needed for the growth of allergic airway inflammation. However, Orkin and colleagues removed a elevated similarity GATA fastening site upstream of The GATA gene and discovered that this results in defects in the eosinophils development. Gerad, Humbles and collegues discovered that allergic airway inflammation is not reliant on eosinophils, though they originated that long term airway remodeling was faulty in a chronic replica of allergic airway inflammation. Additionally, in comparison to other groups eosinophils played a vital role in allergic airwa y inflammation (Fajt, 2016). Since the primary surveillance that eosinophils are prominent in the lungs of asthamatics, examiners in the field are confused by their role in allergic asthma. The proof suggests that more than being end stage cells, eosinophils, may execute a fundamental role in the expansion of allergic airway inflammation. Recently, clinical trials and data murine models suggest that these cells should persist to be considered as important aims in the action of allergic asthma. Furthermore, a improved understanding of the relation between data from murine models of many backdrops and the more assorted reactions in patients is required to get a improved understanding of this procedure. Exchange of the chronic inflammatory response linked with asthma has been a customary healing objective in the organization of this ailment. Healing with ICS suspends ongoing local chronic inflammation in the breathing air passage, with important reduction of asthamatic indications subsequent substantial development of measureable air passage roles. Though, a main inconvenience of corticosteroid treatment is the survival of a sub set of asthamtics that are receptive to corticosteroid treatment. Additional problem with corticosteroids is the linking for the prevention of the systematic impacts of nearby inflicted corticosterois. Current studies in hypereosinophilic syndrome patients defiant to corticosteroid therapy, show the function of focusing the eosinophil with anti IL 5 therapies to these patients may have corticosteroid careful consequence. Therefore, substitute therapies focusing eosinophilis and inflammatory intermediaries are produced. A main example known in the plan of na rrative rehabilitation against asthma is the understanding that focusing a single inflammatory cell may not guide to a important reduction of asthma indications. Like all patients do not consistently present with all the identical scientific characteristics of asthma, the pathological inflammatory profile of particular cell types also becomes visible with all the similar scientific characteristics of asthma, the inflammatory profile of precise cell types also seems to differ in the topics studied. For instance, several patients with asthma are atopic and do not own a distinctive mast cell related type 1 reaction to allergens, which may recommend that not all patients may react to anti Ige therapy. As well, several patients do not have famous airway eosinophilis corroborating the example of asthma, is a compound varied disease and fraction of the problem is because of the inflammation of asthma related to the clinical phenotype of topics chosen for study (Fukuda et al., 2014). There are diverse discrete intermediaries, which are competent of triggering eosinophils, mainly the platelet triggering feature and the split products. Thus, peripheral blood eosinophils of patients with AD reacted with a high chemotactic action upon motivation with PAF, which related with the illness activity. Likewise, consequences were obtained for their inflammatory skin disorders. Furthermore, eosinophils are purposely activated by immunomodulating cytokines. Many cytokines are of importance for the commencement of eosinophils Firstly, the eosinophil IL- 5 as well as granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor IL 3 and tumor necrosis feature. In atopic diseases, specifically AD peripheral blood eosinophils were importantly pre activated. This pre activation was linked with increased vulnerability of the cells to stimulate the cytokines. Consequently, isolated granulocytes demonstrated a significant increase in vitro manufacture of oxygen fundamentals upon stimulation with IL- 5. However, potential studies have to demonstrate which stimuli are the main factors in activating the in vivo. Toxic proteins restricted in the matrix are the main resultant granules of eosinophils This plays a significant role by spreading the sensitive inflammatory procedure and by their different immunomodulatory abilities, these proteins include fundamental protein, eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil resultant neutroxin protein. Collection of these proteins especially ECP could be found underneath the basement membrane and among the patients with AD. This is sustained by the finding that patients with low serum and were thinking to comprise a sub group of patients with AD, also had improved serum ECP. In difference, no important amounts of ECP could be noticed in the serum of patients with indications of gentle to reasonable perennial allergic rhinitis. Though, eosinophil activation in the patients can take place with active nasal mucosa. An accretion of eosinophil is rarely establishED in the biopsies of chronic eczematous skin of patients by hematoxylin eosin staining. This may be clarifIed by examinations by insightful cells in the bronchial mucosa of patients with allergic bronchial asthma. In many patients the eosinophil penetration was not seen by hematoxylin eosin staining, though cells were absolutely degranulated and seen only by means of immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy. Hence, important collection of eosinophil derived MBP and EDN/EPX could be found by in the eczematous skin of patients by immune histochemical techniques, as a sign of eosinophil degranulaation at the time of inflammation. Furthermore, a relation connecting disease movement and deposition of eosinophil granule content could be advisable (Lacy, 2014). It is usually decided that there are various subtypes of asthamatic patients with many degrees of eosinophil activity. Thus, a important role in asthma investigate must be the growth of more sensible animal replica to reproduce the sub types of illness. In accumulation to a possible position in immunomodulation there is also growing novel detail about the position of eosinophil in oncology. Some learning using morpometric immunohistorical techniques to quantify eosinophils in tumours have completed that tumour linked tissue eosinophilia has a optimistic predictive persuassion on squamous cell carcinomas and pulmonary adenocarcinoma. The instrument of eosinophil indiced tumor weakening are badly unstated. However, expression of eotaxin by verbal squamous cell carcinomas was found to particulary induces TATE in this tumour kind. Whether this will reflect in a prognostic suggestion continues to be clarified. Lung cancer shows an eosinophill association in certain types (Mueller, 2011). The typical example eosinophils as a biomarker for illness and harshness in the analysis of asthma exacerbations. In this review eminent examples of eosinophils in sputum associated with disorder harshness and can be used in the organization of patient heed. Though, narrative essays with the capability to recognize and enumerate eosinophil actions are now starting to show promise as a curing tool. Addtionally, biochemical essays of eosinophil activities to disease harshness patient result is as true of unique ELISA assays of eosinophil granule proteins. The accessibility of these methods is of particular interest moving forward as the roles of eosinophils (Morrow Brown,1958).

Monday, March 23, 2020

The Uses, Functions, and Shortcomings of University Writing Centers The Disservice or No Proofreading Policies for ES/FL Learners

Identifying the Problem Area Importance of effective writing skills is enormous with regard to the existing academic and professional standards. During the peer-tutoring sessions, students are often challenged by the professors’ instructions and, therefore, they need additional assistance to cope with writing assignments.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Uses, Functions, and Shortcomings of University Writing Centers: The Disservice or No Proofreading Policies for ES/FL Learners specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is of particular concern to ESL students who often face a dilemma of proofreading because of lack of qualified proofreading services on campus. However, the point is that most of students are not fully aware of the necessity to check their papers for grammar and spelling before submitting them to their professors. What is more frustrating is that the current writing centers for second langua ge learners fail to provide sufficient services for them, except for the expensive ones. Judging from the above-presented assumptions, two major problems come to the forth: What are the main reasons for students’ unawareness of the need to proofread their papers before submissions? What does the University fail to provide high quality proofreading services for ESL students? With this in mind, it is necessary to explore the main causes and origins of the problem, as well as define who these urgent issues can be addressed through an action research plan. Significance of the Problem The problem of disservice writing policies, as well as students’ reluctance to address professional assistance has recently become much more serious. Many ESL learners fail to meet with their supervisors merely because they are not able to communicate effectively, as well as understand what actually a professor want them to do. Therefore, students studying the English language as their secon d one often come to the writing center for not just writing assistance, but for the purpose of improving their communicational skills (Pistone, 2010). However, lack of sufficient communication skills might become a serious problem because it also influences the frequency of students’ attendance to the proofreading centers. Aside from the communication difficulties, ESL students can face significant writing problems that need especial intervention. The point is that writing skills cannot be underestimated because they demonstrate students’ learning abilities (Tan, n. d.). Therefore, students having poor writing level have greater changes to fail their academic exams. The problem area is of especially significance because it provides significant barriers for the ESL students and contributes negatively to the problem of international learning. The problem is also closely associated with cultural diversity issues which are often ignored by professors. Thus, students studyi ng the second language do not consider proofreading service as a viable solution to the problem because independent learning is highly appreciated in some countries.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rationale for the Research Regarding the problem of second language learning and the consequences of disservice writing centers, it is imperative to provide a deeper analysis of reasons for students’ reluctance and unawareness of attending writing centers, as well as underpinnings for re-evaluating the existing functions and use of proofreading services. Looking the problem through the prism of innovative approaches to proofreading, as well as existing writing centers ensuring effective support and assistance to students, the research action plan should be introduced to take the corresponding measures to improve the current situation. Theoretical Implications for the Action Research Lack of highly qualified proofreading services, as well as students’ reluctance to address such services, provides a solid ground for researching the standards and main strategies applied by leading writing centers. It will help to define how ESL students can improve their writing skills. There is also a necessity to explore the reasons for students’ ignorance of the importance of addressing tutors at the writing centers to compare the findings with the results obtained from questionnaire. Finally, it is also purposeful to focus on the existing strategies and approaches to assisting foreign learners in advancing their writing skills. According to the studies performed by Tan (n. d.), few universities in Asian countries can provide sufficient writing services for ESL students. What is more problematic is that these services are often provided under the support of broader services, such as learning or self-access centers. As a result, lack of writing and support centers does not contribute to recognizing the fact that many students have serious problems with the written assignments. Despite the identified shortage, some universities still manage to introduce innovation in the sphere of proofreading. For instance, the Baptist College in Hong Kong has created the Writing Enhancement Service because teacher became more aware of their students having problems with writing (Tan, n. d.). In this respect, they developed an effective system addressing various aspects of writing, as well as assisting students in exploring drawbacks in their writing. In the studies provided by Gupta Woldemarian (n. d.), it is also possible to track the interdependency of writing skills and degree of motivation to improve them. Because students are often triggered by the necessity to meet the academic writing standards, such aspects as attitude and motivation are always under the question. In this respect, these factors enable to differentiate because students with low and h igh achievement.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Uses, Functions, and Shortcomings of University Writing Centers: The Disservice or No Proofreading Policies for ES/FL Learners specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Because motivation and attitude are emotional composites of emotional cognition, they identify students’ reluctance or aspiration either to attend or to skip proofreading services. Similar to Gupta Woldemarian (n. d.), Ma (2011) refers to the role of perception and attitude in achieving high academic results. Specifically, the scholar points out that sometimes, students and teachers’ perceptions of academic objectives differ significantly, which leads to misconception and bias. As a result, students are often discouraged to present properly written assignments and understand the actual purpose of advancing their writing skills. Because students do not fully realize the importance of the w riting skills, it is logical that they do not realize the importance of attending writing centers. The dependency between teachers’ strategies and learners’ attention has also been studied by Torki (n. d.) who has managed to explore compatibility between these two aspects. Investigating those aspects within a context of vocabulary class, the research relies on the two variables, â€Å"frequency and order of occurrence of lexical items in classroom discourse† (Torki, n. d. p. 336). The findings have revealed that some of the teachers’ assumptions concerning the learning strategies have been false, including frequency of occurrence. Overall, the given theoretical implications creates a sufficient ground for conducting a survey that seeks to define the actual reasons and percentage of students attending writing centers and the ones considering it a mere waste of time. Moreover, the given action research should define the new strategies for existing writing c enters and proofreading services. Methodology Data Collection In order to answer the research questions and solve the research problems, a survey was conducted among 100 students on campus. The survey questions aim to define students’ attitude to writing services, as well as their awareness of the importance of attending proofreading services before submission. The sample population was chosen out of 3000 students. The participants composed of different nationalities, religions, and beliefs. Gender characteristic have not been considered because it provides no importance for answering the research question. While collecting data about the participants, I encountered several challenges. First, some students rejected to participate because they did not actually understand the purpose of research, though the scope was sufficiently explained. Second, the participants had difficulties while answering specific questions that related to their personal attitudes and beliefs. The data collection was composed of two stages. The first one involved e-mailing all students on campus about the survey and the second one was the survey itself. The invitation letter contained a brief characteristic of the research problem and a detailed analysis of an action research project. Out of 3000, about 230 reacted to the letter. However, the survey was completed by 100 participants because not all students were able to answer the questions.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The questionnaire prepared for the survey was composed with regard to such topics as frequency of attending writing centers, reasons for using services, students’ attitude of importance of using proofreading services, awareness and perception of teachers’ obligations and practical approaches. All the thematic nodes sought to find out the reasons of disservice of proofreading polices, as well as students’ perception of their contribution to the learning process. In addition, students have been chosen from different classes and departments and, therefore, these facts will not be included as a variable for the given action research project. Data Analysis While analyzing the answers, several topic areas were covered in the questionnaire (See Appendix 1). Among the respondents, 52% participants attended the writing centers and most of them (36 %) visited the center only once. The rest of the respondents did not use the proofreading services because the majority of th em (60 %) did not have enough time. Despite low frequency of attendance, approximately 50 % of the respondents believe that the writing centers providing a wide range of services (writing tutorials, writing practice materials, proofreading assistance, and creative writing practice) are indispensible for a successful academic progress. Hence, a controversy emerges concerning students’ frequency of attendance and their actual needs. Regarding these controversies, the focus should be made on re-evaluation of the existing services provided by the writing centers. First, the responses indicate that tutors fail to consider students’ needs and objectives because they do not fully recognize the problem with writing. Second, though the existing on campus agency provide sufficient writing and proofreading services, teacher fail to ensure students with the corresponding support and assistance. What is more important is that these agencies fail to invite students and persuade thos e that proofreading process is as important as the writing one. The second part of a survey was focused on the analysis of teachers’ role in assisting and counseling students. Thus, almost two third of respondents (62 %) confirmed that they are not in need of a person that would check their paper before submission. The remaining third (38 %) of students recognized the necessity of introducing intermediate for checking their writing. However, among these 38 % of students refer to mostly either to family members or friend for checking a paper. Out of those people, only 24 % rely on teacher’s authority. As per 62 %, these groups of students explain their reluctance to involve a third person by unavailability of professionals (47 %), insignificance of the checking (30 %), and time shortage (21 %), 2 % of the respondents do not even consider that checking is really important. These results were supported by students’ opinion about the importance and usefulness of the proofreading services. Finally, the results of the survey provided information about the expensiveness of the proofreading services because only 17 % of respondents afforded to pay for them. Overall, the given survey results have proved the idea that the writing centers on campus do not provide enough support. They also fail to attract students to address such agencies because the majority of students have not applied to them yet. Finally, students’ perception of tutors help is insignificant because they do not recognize the role of counseling in advancing their writing skills. At the same time, they believe that writing tutorials and creative approaches should still be used. A Plan of Action To explore the reasons and define the solutions that should be introduced, it is necessary to introduce changes to the current situation. The solutions will be focused on improving the quality of tutors’ assistance, as well as making students being more aware of the importance of addressing the writing centers. With regard to the above, the plan will focus on introducing the following changes: Introducing new tutor strategies for creating new writing centers on campus will be possible through a care-centered approach (Piston, 2010); Reconsidering professor’s instructions to the written assignments through instructional interventions (Enos, 2010); Recognizing the difficulties that students experience while performing a written assignment (Tan, n. d.); Introducing a person-oriented approach to assessing ESL student writing skills; Creating separate classes of ESL students having difficulties with proofreading (Ernest, Johnson, Kelly-Riley, 2011); Introducing new steps to understanding written assignment. Regarding the first solution, it is purposeful to introduce a care giving approach for a student. Under these circumstances, the personnel of the writing centers should undergo special training to meet the concepts and requirement of a new learning technique. To be more precise, â€Å"†¦the caring tutoring approach when the tutor does not mindlessly berate the tutee about every sentence in the tutee’s paper and a caring tutor employs constructive criticism† (Piston, 2010, p. 10). Thus, a caring approach will fear a deep comprehension of a tutor, as well as an in-depth analysis of the tutee. Hence, the concept of caring should an ethical obligation for students because tutors should assist students from moral and professional perspectives. In this respect, Piston (2010) talks about mothering roles and increased importance of women in applying this approach. A relation between a tutor and tutee, therefore, should be interpreted as a psychological consultation, which is necessary for recognizing the difficulties and overcoming those in smaller class groups. Aside from innovative approaches introduced in the plan, significant shifts should be presented to the actual academic schedule. In this respect, Enos (2011 ) insists on the idea of instructional interventions to fill in the gaps between students’ writing skills and teachers’ expectations. In this respect, the importance of instructional interventions lies in promoting the level of students’ writing skills, as well as improving the learning outcomes. Judging from these theoretical implications, the practical intervention will be based on the shift in communication, lesson structure, and home assignments allocation. More importantly, the professors will have to introduce cohesive and strict instructions to the home assignment where the proofreading part will be inserted as an obligatory component of academic home assignments. A person-oriented approach is also an integral component of advanced and high-quality proofreading centers, as far as people with culturally diverse backgrounds are concerned. According to Crossman and Kite (2007), there is an evident connection between learning practices and the phenomenon of c ultural diversity. Hence, introducing native speakers to ESL classes will be beneficial for both group because there is a great opportunities for sharing experience and exchanging cultural information. Students from different cultures integrates into proofreading activities can significantly improve their communicational and interpersonal skills. Moreover, a collaborative approach presented at the writing centers can open a wide variety of perspectives for all students. Finally, understanding the scope of written assignments can be widened through creating online writing lab. Existing writing agencies on campus, therefore, should post basic concepts and purposes of writing, among the proofreading process should take one of the most important means of successful and high quality writing. Moreover, integration of online services to Asian university should become possible through interventions made from the North American higher educational establishments (Tan, n. d., p. 390). Embracin g all the above-presented solutions will help re-establish and improve the existing situation with the shortage of proofreading services, as well as disservice of the writing policies. Evaluating Results Regarding the proposed interventions, the improvement should occur in terms of students’ increased awareness of the role of proofreading services in an academic process, as well as advanced quality of writing services provided to students. In this respect, introducing a care giving approach to each student should contribute greatly to changing perceptions and attitudes to word the editing and proofreading process being inherent parts of successful writing. Teaching patterns will also undergo tangible shifts both at the writing centers on campus and in the classrooms. In particular, they should encourage students to engage into different social communities and attract them to address writing agencies for the purpose of improving their communication skills and proofreading skil ls. Moreover, significant attention will be given to difficulties and challenges that students should overcome. In such a manner, the intervention plan will increase the number of ESL students that want to apply to editing and proofreading services before submitting a written assignment to their instructions. The given approach to problem solving provides significant results because total evaluation of an academic curriculum is closely associated with disservice of proofreading services, as well as students’ unawareness of the writing difficulties. However, the intervention plan can be significantly facilitated if the University authorities decide to create community learning services guiding students and helping them cope with writing difficulties. In addition, a combination of survey results (quantitative data) with interviews (qualitative data) would also be beneficial for the given action research project because it could help consider ethical issues (Harwood, Austin, Ma caulay, 2010; Arney Jones, 2006). Specifically, interviews would provide a deeper insight into the students’ perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes concerning the role of proofreading and tutors’ assistance in writing skills acquisition. Conclusion and Recommendations The action research projects have highlighted the importance of introducing tutors’ assistance, as well as specific training materials for ESL students so as to advance the level of their writing skills. In fact, paying greater attention to the concept of writing and proofreading service can increase the quality of students’ achievement, as well as contribute to students’ understanding of using editing and proofreading services being at the core of successful writing. The data analysis has justified the rationale for introducing action plan to the given problem because the majority of ESL students on campus are not fully aware of the value of tutors’ assistance and support. In th is respect, the implementation of a care giving approach and a person-oriented learning can provide significant shifts to the overall educational system. The quantitative data received from survey results constitute sufficient evidence for continuing the research on the problem of proofreading services provided by the writing centers on campus. Implications for future works will be specifically connected with the study of cultural diversity as one of the key indicators that influence ESL learners’ writing skills. Specifically, creating service learning communities and online writing labs that can motivate students to address counselors. With regard to the above-presented conclusions, it is recommended to introduce qualitative data to supply the given research with additional information on the reasons for ignoring professional assistance of peer tutors checking papers before submissions. Financial issues should also be considered while tackling the problem of students’ perception of the writing agencies at the University. References Arney, J., Jones, I. (2006). Uniting Community and University Through Service Learning. Business Communication Quarterly, 69(2), 195-198. Crossman, J. M., Kite, S. L. (2007). Their Perspectives: Esl Students’ Reflections On Collaborative Community Service Learning. Business Communication Quarterly, 70(2), 147-165. Enos, M. F. (2010). Instructional Interventions For Improving Proofreading And Editing Skills Of College Students. Business Communication Quarterly, 73(3), 265-281. Ernest, A., Johnson, P., Kelly-Riley, D. (2011). Assessing Rhetorically: Evidence of Student Progress in Small-Group Writing Tutorials. Learning Assistance Review (TLAR), 16(2), 23-40. Gupta, D., Woldemarian, G. S. (n. d.). The Influence of Motivation and Attitude on Writing Strategy Use of Undergraduate EFL Students: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives. Asian EFL Journal. 13(2), 34-89. Harwood N., Austin, L., Macaulay, R. (2010 ). Ethics and integrity in proofreading: Findings from an interview-based study. English For Specific Purposes, 2954-67. Ma, A. (2011). Do teachers reap what they sow? — A study of young ESL learners’ perception of what is learned in an English lesson. Asian EFL Journal, 13(3), 184-204. Piston, R. A. (2010). Writing Center Tutors Have the Luxury to Focus on Individual Student Care Giving as Opposed to Formal Classroom Settings that Are Less Care Centered. English Language Teaching. 3(2), 10-12. Tan, B.-H. (n. d.) Innovating Writing Centers and Online Writing Labs outside North America. Asian EFL Journal. 13(2), 391-418. Torki, S. (n. d.) What Teachers Want Them to Attend to in EFL Vocabulary Class? Asian EFL Journal. 13(2), 336-361. Appendix 1 ESP Writing Skills Survey – Results Instructions Please circle the correct answer and provide information according to your answer, if requested. Have you ever been to the writing center on campus? YES (48%) or NO (52%) I f YES, on average how many times per semester? Once (36%) Two or three times (42%) Four or five times (24%) More than five times (2%) If NO, why not? No one was available to help the last time I went (7%) It is not necessary (30%) I never have enough time (60%) Other (Please explain _Didnt know about it____ ) (3%) What do you think is the main purpose of a writing center? To provide writing tutorials (27%) To provide writing practice materials (34%) To provide proof-reading assistance (15%) To encourage creative writing (24%) Please rank the importance of the writing services below according to your own personal need. Service Not Important Slightly Important Moderately Important Very Important Writing tutorials 7% 15% 28% 50% Writing practice materials 5% 9% 34% 52% Proof reading assistance 6% 44% 20% 30% Creative writing practice 4% 14% 29% 53% Do you have someone check your work before you submit it to your teacher? YES (38%) or NO (62%) If YES, who c hecks your work? A family member (34%) A friend (43%) A teacher (23%) Other (Please explain ___________________ ) (0%) If NO, why not? No one is available to help (47%) It is not necessary (30%) I never have enough time (21%) Other (Please explain __Never thought of it____ ) (2%) In your opinion, how much would a proof reading service help you to improve your writing skills? Not at all (4%) Slightly (16%) Moderately (56%) Dramatically (24%) Have you ever paid for a proof reading service online? YES (17%) or NO (83%) This essay on The Uses, Functions, and Shortcomings of University Writing Centers: The Disservice or No Proofreading Policies for ES/FL Learners was written and submitted by user Carlos Munoz to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Essentials of Life-Span Development essayEssay Writing Service

Essentials of Life-Span Development essayEssay Writing Service Essentials of Life-Span Development essay Essentials of Life-Span Development essay1) The key factors include moral and physical development of a person: economic independence, full-time job, responsibility for oneself, acceptance of actions’ consequences, establishment of relations with parents as equal, determination of beliefs and values.2) Regular exercise can prevent some diseases (stroke, heart diseases, high blood pressure, and some types of cancer), improve mood by easing stress after tough day, boost energy and endurance improving muscle strength. It burns calories and helps to solve problems with an excess weight that can cause harm to the health. Regular exercise also can help to fall asleep faster and deeper. In order to build exercise into our life, we should first of all choose the type(s) of exercise to do. It depends on the needs of a person (exercise for health, body and so on). Also it is necessary to consult a doctor to avoid an excess exercise stress. Then we need to define time for exercise and do it regularly.3) Sexual harassment is intimidation, humiliation or compulsion of a sexual nature, undesirable or improper promise of rewards for sexual services. It can also be any undesirable sexual contact with company management if such a contact is accompanied by threats or promises of changes in employment status.4) Realistic thinking is mental activity, directed at cognition and transformation of reality. Pragmatic thinking is mental activity, directed at reflection of reality in the light of knowledge, acquired from individual experiences. Reflective thinking is mental activity, directed at reflection of reality in which systematically revised its reasons and laws. Relativistic thinking is mental activity, directed at reflection of reality with constant understanding of dependence from context of its use.5) The impact of work on success in collage can be negative only when the student’s number of work hours per week exceeds 16. In the case when a student works weekly 1 -15 hours, the impact of work is positive. It is proved by many studies, that students working 1-15 hours per week have higher GPA that those who work more than 16 hours or doesn’t work at all.CHAPTER 121) An attachment can be characterized as secure (separation from caregiver causes distress, his return – joy), ambivalent (a child cannot depend on a caregiver), avoidant (a child avoid parents) and disorganized (a child can resist or avoid parents). Strong positive childhood attachments with parents tend to have lasting and successful romantic relations, good self-esteem and the ability to trust people and to disclose oneself to others in further life. Problems in forming attachments patterns with parents can cause different disorders in mentality (conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder etc.2) The ancient Greeks recognized six types of love: eros, ludus, storge, pragma, mania and agape. Eros is a kind of romantic, tender, platonic love, strong affection to a p erson. Storge is a friendship love (to relatives, friends), to my mind it is typical for majority of people. Agape is a gentle love that makes a person care about his or her beloved. It can also be love for every human being, the one upon which the Lord calls us. Ludus is uncommitted love, a kind of game, when a person does not care a lot about feelings of someone else. Pragma is a love with benefits, mutually advantageous for both people. Mania is an obsessive love, when a person wants to possess completely his beloved and do not want to share him or her with anyone else.3) Despite all modern changes in social institutions, family is still an important and significant part of them. In the modern society family can be created even without marriage, but most people are still keeping to the formal union. Recent trends in marriage are tightly connected with social development. Thus, the technological progress changed a wife’s role if the family (it simplified cooking, clothes wa shing and drying, housecleaning, dishwashing), so a woman now has more time to enjoy her life. The development of mass-produced goods conditioned the change of marriage from production-based into consumption one. The development of consumption sphere together with leisure increased the need in high income.   A reasonable proxy to earn more is education, so marriage becomes appealing to people with a college degree. Culture variations in marriage can be expressed in religion and racial differences, social status of spouses.4) The effects of careers on parenting can be both positive and negative. On the one hand, parents can decrease stress related to finance, children learn to care for themselves and improve their knowledge of various careers. But on the other hand, parents have less time to spend with children, to help them with school lessons, to control their education. They can bring home negative emotions and frustration from work. Recent trends in childbearing demonstrate a l arge percent of illegitimate childbearing, abortions, use of contraception, decrease of an average number of fertility. Birth rate is higher in rural areas than in urban ones.5) There are a lot of communication differences between men and women, most of them are related to the childhood (girls build their friendship on conversations, boys prefer actions). In communication women discuss their problems, organize their thoughts and find out if the information is necessary or excessive only after pronouncing it. On the contrary men see communication as a means of reaching a concrete goal and share only essential details after choosing them among the whole story. In discussing problems men are action-oriented and start looking for solution at once, while women feel calm and understood after a mere conversation, they do not need any further action.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Branding Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Branding - Assignment Example Along with this, the OFT rules also enhanced the purchasing rate of real estate apartments to a considerable extent as compared to others. This helped the organization of Foxtons to expand its growth rate and equity significantly.Economic- economic downtown acted negatively over the organizations operating in real estate segments. This reduced the buying behaviour of the individual of UK thereby declining the profit margin and market value of the organization operating in this segment. Along with this, the rate of unemployment increased and the range of per capita income and net income of the individual of UK also reduced thereby the power of purchase also reduced significantly. Moreover, changes in the prices of VAT and stamp duty prices also affected the market of real estate. All these above mentioned factors reduced the demand of the real estate organization such as Foxtons in the market of UK. Social- the growing interest of the citizens of UK to reside in communities also acted negatively over the organization of Foxtons. Along with this, as most of the citizens of the UK comprised of their own properties, the craze to purchase new apartments reduced to a certain extent. And as the number of aged populations increased, the rate to purchase new apartments decreased. All these factors reduced the total sale of the apartments of Foxtons in the market among others. Technological- non-implementation of innovative technologies such as SMS property alerts, email alerts are also responsible for its decline. Along with this, im